Professor Emeritus of Psychology & Social Behavior

Ph.D. Harvard University
(949) 824-7045
4302 Social and Behavioral Sciences Gateway



personality, psychopathology, health psychology, creativity

Curriculum Vitae: 


Though pursuing a wide range of interests in personality and psychopathology, Salvatore R. Maddi is especially concerned with stress management and creativity. According to him, these are best considered related concerns, integrated by the personality hardiness model. Through deepening the attitudes of commitment, control, and challenge marking hardiness, persons can simultaneously develop, reach their potentialities, and cope with the stresses encountered on the way. Maddi's research concerns these topics, using naturalistic designs and training with a range of adult and adolescent subjects in their occupational, familial, and school settings. Also studied is the role of psychosocial factors in the etiology and progression of various physical illnesses.

Web Links of Research Sites

Selected Publications

  • Maddi, S. R. (2006). Personality theories facilitate integrating the five principles and deducing hypotheses for testing. American Psychologist, in press.
  • Maddi, S. R. (2006). The practical dangers of middle level theorizing in personality research. Journal of Mind and Behavior, 27, 243-268.
  • Maddi, S. R. (2006). Building an integrated positive psychology. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 1(4), 226-229.
  • Maddi, S. R. (2006). Hardiness: The courage to grow from stresses. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 1(3), 160-168).
  • Maddi, S. R. (2006). Taking the theorizing in personality theories seriously. American Psychologist, 61, 330-331.
  • Maddi, S. R., Harvey, R. H., Resurreccion, R., Giatras, C. D., & Raganold, S. (2006). Hardiness as a performance enhancer in firefighters. International Journal of Fire Service Leadership and Management, 1, in press.
  • Maddi, S. R. (2006). Relevance of hardiness assessment and training to the military context. Military Psychology, 19 (1), in press.
  • Maddi, S. R., Harvey, R., Khoshaba, D. M., Lu, J., Persico, M. & Brow, M. (2006). The personality construct of hardiness, III: Relationships with repression, innovativeness, authoritarianism, and performance. Journal of Personality, 74, 575-598.
  • Maddi, S. R., Brow, M., Khoshaba, D. M. & Vaitkus, M. (2006). The relationship of hardiness and religiosity in depression and anger. Consulting Psychology Journal, 58, 148-161.
  • Maddi, S.R. (2005). Resilience at work: How to succeed no matter what life throws at you. New York, NY: Amacom.
  • Maddi, S. R. (2005). Hardiness: The courage to be resilient. In J.C. Thomas, D. L. Degal, and M. Hersen (Eds.), Comprehensive Handbook of Personality and Psychopathology (Vol. 1), 306-321.
  • Maddi, S. R. (2005). Hardiness as the key to resilience under stress. Psychology Review, 11, 20-23.
  • Maddi, S.R. (2005). On hardiness and other pathways to resilience. American Psychologist, 60, 261-262.
  • Maddi, S. R. & Harvey, R. H. (2005). Hardiness considered across cultures. In P. T. P. Wong & L. C. J. Wong (Eds.), Handbook of multicultural perspectives on stress and coping. New York, NY: Springer, pp. 403-420.
  • Maddi, S.R. (2004). Hardiness: An operationalization of existential courage. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 44, 279-298.
  • Maddi, S.R., Khoshaba, D.M., Jensen,K., Carter, E., Lu, J. & Harvey, R. (2002). Hardiness training for high risk undergraduates. NACADA Journal, 22, 45-55.
  • Maddi, S.R. (2002). The story of hardiness: Twenty years of theoring, research, and practice. Consulting Psychology Journal, 54, 173-185.
  • Maddi, S.R. Personality theories: A comparative analysis (6th Ed.). Prospective Heights, IL: Waveland Press, 2000.
  • Maddi, S. R. & Hightower, M. (1999). Hardiness and optimism as expressed in coping patterns. Consulting Psychology Journal, 51, 95-105.
  • Maddi, S. R., Khoshaba, D. M. & Pammeter, A. (1999). The Hardy Organization: Success by turning change to advantage. Consulting Psychology Journal, 51, 117-124.
  • Maddi, S. R. (1998). Dispositional hardiness in health and effectiveness. In H.S. Friedman (ed.), Encyclopedia of mental health. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
  • Maddi, S. R., Kahn, S. & Maddi, L. K. (1998). The effectiveness of hardiness training. Consulting Psychology Journal, 50, 78-86.
  • Maddi, S.R., Wadhwa, P. & Haier, R.J. (1996). Relationship of hardiness to alcohol and drug use in adolescents. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 22, 247-257.
  • Maddi, S. R. & Khoshaba D. M. (1994). Hardiness and mental health. Journal of Personality Assessment, 63, 265-274.
  • Maddi, S.R. & Hess, M. (1992). Hardiness and basketball performance. International Journal of Sports Psychology, 21, 153-161.
  • Maddi, S.R. (1990). Issues and interventions in stress mastery. In H.S. Friedman (Ed.) Personality and disease. New York: Wiley.
  • Maddi, S. R. (1988). On the problem of accepting facticity and pursuing possibility. In Messer, S. B., Sass, LA & Woolfolk, R. L. (Eds.), Hermeneutics and psychological theory. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
  • Maddi, S.R. Hardiness training at Illinois Bell Telephone. In J.P. Opatz (Ed.), Health Promotion Evaluation, Stevens Point, WI: National Wellness Institute, 1987.
  • Maddi, S.R., Kobasa, S.C., Puccetti, M. & Zola, M. Relative effectiveness of hardiness, exercise and social support as resources against illness. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 1986, 29, 525-533.
  • Maddi, S.R. & Kobasa, S.C. The hardy executive: Health under stress. Homewood, IL: Dow Jones-Irwin, 1984.
  • Kobasa, S.C., Maddi, S.R., & Zola, M.A. Type A and hardiness. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 1983, 6, 41-51.
  • Maddi, S.R. Existential psychotherapy. In J. Garske & S. Lynn (Eds.), Contemporary psychotherapy. New York: Merrill Publishers, 1966.


Last updated: Thursday, July 14, 2016 - 9:07am