Professor of Psychology and Social Behavior

Ph.D. The University of Chicago
(949) 824-7692
4568 Social and Behavioral Sciences Gateway



Bias in predicted and remembered emotion; how emotions influence the features of events people attend to and remember; the development of children’s ability to regulate emotion.

Curriculum Vitae: 

Selected Publications

  • Van Damme, I., Kaplan, R. L., Levine, L. J., & Loftus, E. L. (in press). Emotion and false memory: How goal-irrelevance can be relevant for what people remember. Memory. [pdf]
  • Kaplan, R. L., Levine, L. J., Lench, H. C., & Safer, M. A. (in press). Forgetting feelings: Opposite biases in reports of the intensity of past emotion and mood. Emotion. [pdf]
  • Kaplan, R. L., Van Damme, I., Levine, L. J., & Loftus, E. L. (in press). Emotion and false memory. Emotion Review. [pdf]
  • Hovasapian, A., & Levine, L. J. (in press). Reappraisal mitigates overestimation of remembered pain in anxious individuals. Cognition and Emotion. [pdf]
  • Tinti, C., Schmidt, S., Testa, S., &  Levine, L. J. (2014). Distinct processes shape flashbulb and event memories. Memory & Cognition, 42, 539-551. [pdf]
  • Levine, L. J., Lench, H. C., Kaplan, R. L., & Safer, M. A. (2013). Like Schrödinger’s cat, the impact bias is both dead and alive: Reply to Wilson and Gilbert (2013). Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 105, 749-756. [pdf]
  • Davis, E. L., & Levine, L. J. (2013). Emotion regulation strategies that promote learning: Reappraisal enhances children’s memory for educational information. Child Development, 84, 361-74. [pdf]
  • Lench, H. C., Levine, L. J., & Whalen, C. K. (2013). Exasperating or exceptional? Parents’ interpretations of their child’s ADHD behavior. Journal of Attention Disorders,17, 141-151. [pdf]
  • Levine, L. J., Kaplan, R.  L., & Davis, E. (2013). How kids keep their cool: Young children’s use of cognitive strategies to regulate emotion (pp. 3-9). In D. Hermans, B. Mesquita, & B. Rimé (Eds.), Changing Emotions, Hove, East-Sussex: Psychology Press.
  • Levine, L. J., Lench, H. C., Kaplan, R. L., & Safer, M. A. (2012). Accuracy and artifact: Reexamining the intensity bias in affective forecasting. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 103, 584-605. [pdf]            Meta-analysis data. [excel]
  • Levine, L. J., Schmidt, S., Kang, H. S., & Tinti, C. (2012). Remembering the silver lining: Reappraisal and positive bias in memory for emotion. Cognition and Emotion, 26, 871-84. [pdf]
  • Kaplan, R. L., Van Damme, I., & Levine, L. J. (2012). Motivation matters: Differing effects of pre-goal and post-goal emotions on attention and memory. Frontiers in Emotion Science, 3: 404. [pdf]
  • Lench, H. C., Safer, M. A., & Levine, L. J. (2011). Focalism and the underestimation of future emotion: When it's worse than imagined. Emotion, 11, 278-85. [pdf]
  • Lench, H. C., & Levine, L. J. (2010). Motivational biases in memory for emotions. Cognition and Emotion, 24, 401-418. [pdf]
  • Schmidt, S., Tinti, C., Levine, L., & Testa, S. (2010). Appraisals, emotions and emotion regulation: An integrative approach. Motivation and Emotion, 34, 63–72. [pdf]
  • Davis, E. L., Levine, L. J., Lench, H. C., & Quas, J. A. (2010). Metacognitive emotion regulation: Children’s awareness that changing thoughts and goals can alleviate negative emotions. Emotion, 10, 498-510. [pdf]
  • Babb, K. A., Levine, L. J., & Arseneault, J. M. (2010). Shifting gears: Coping flexibility in children with and without ADHD. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 34, 10-23. [pdf]
  • Levine, L. J., & Edelstein, R. S. (2009). Emotion and memory narrowing: A review and goal relevance approach. Cognition and Emotion, 23, 833-875.[pdf]
  • Levine, L. J., Lench, H. C., & Safer, M. A. (2009). Functions of remembering and misremembering emotion. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 23, 1059-1075.[pdf]
  • Lench, H. C., & Levine, L. J. (2008). Goals and responses to failure: Knowing when to hold them and when to fold them. Motivation and Emotion, 32, 127-140.[pdf]
  • Levine, L. J., Burgess, S., & Laney, C. (2008). Effects of discrete emotions on young children's suggestibility. Developmental Psychology, 44, 681-694. [pdf]
  • Davis, E., Quas, J. A., & Levine, L. J. (2008). Children's memory for stressful events: Exploring the role of discrete emotions. M. Howe, D. Cicchetti, & G. Goodman (Eds.), Stress, trauma, and children's memory development: Neurobiological, cognitive, clinical, and legal perspectives (pp. 236-264). Oxford University Press. [pdf]
  • Rice, J. A., Levine, L. J., & Pizarro, D. A. (2007). "Just stop thinking about it": Effects of emotional disengagement on children's memory for educational material. Emotion, 7, 812-23. [pdf]
  • Levine, L. J., & Pizarro, D. A. (2006). Emotional valence, discrete emotions, and memory. In B. Uttl, N. Ohta, & A. L. Siegenthaler, (Eds.). Memory and emotion: Interdisciplinary perspectives. Blackwell Publishing. [pdf]
  • Levine, L. J., Safer, M. A., & Lench, H. C. (2006). Remembering and misremembering emotions. In L. J. Sanna and E. C. Chang (Eds.). Judgments over time: The interplay of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors (pp. 271-290). New York: Oxford University Press. [pdf]
  • Lench, H. C., & Levine, L. J. (2005). Effects of fear on risk and control judgments and memory: Implications for health promotion messages. Cognition and Emotion, 19, 1049-1069. [pdf]
  • Pechmann, C., Levine, L., Loughlin, S., & Leslie, F. (2005). Impulsive and self-conscious: Adolescents' vulnerability to advertising and promotion. Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, 24, 202-221. [pdf]
  • Levine, L. J., Whalen, C. K., Jamner, L. D., & Henker, B. (2005). Looking Back on September 11, 2001: Appraised Impact and Memory for Emotions in Adolescents and Adults. Journal of Adolescent Research, 20, 497-523. [pdf]
  • Levine, L. J., & Pizarro, D. A. (2004). Emotion and memory research: A grumpy overview. Social Cognition, 22, 530-554. [pdf]
  • Levine, L. J., & Bluck, S. (2004). Painting with broad strokes: Happiness and the malleability of event memory. Cognition and Emotion, 18, 559-574. [pdf]
  • Whalen, C. K., Henker, B., King, P., Jamner, L. D., & Levine, L. J. (2004). Adolescents react to the events of September 11, 2001: Focused versus ambient impact. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 32, 1-11. [pdf]
  • Levine, L. J., & Bluck, S. (2004). How emotions fade: Valence, appraisals and the emotional impact of remembered events. Advances in Psychological Research. Hauppage, New York: Nova Science.
  • Levine, L. J., & Safer, M. A. (2002). Sources of bias in memory for emotions. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 11, 169-173. [pdf]
  • Safer, M. A., Levine, L. J., & Drapalski, A. (2002). Distortion in memory for emotions: The contributions of personality and post-event knowledge. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 1495-1507. [pdf]
  • Levine, L. J., Prohaska, V., Burgess, S. L., Rice, J. A, & Laulhere, T. (2001). Remembering emotions: The role of current appraisals. Cognition and Emotion, 15, 393-417. [pdf]
  • Bluck, S., Levine, L. J., & Laulhere, T. (1999). Autobiographical remembering and hypermnesia: A comparison of older and younger adults. Psychology and Aging, 14, 671-682. [pdf]
  • Levine, L. J., Stein, N. L., & Liwag, M. D. (1999). Remembering children's emotions: Sources of concordance and discordance between parents and children. Developmental Psychology, 35, 790-801. [pdf]
  • Stein, N. L., & Levine, L. J. (1999). The early emergence of emotional understanding and appraisal: Implications for theories of development. In T. Dalgleish & M. Power (Eds.), The handbook of cognition and emotion (pp. 383-408). Chicester: Wiley.
  • Bluck, S., & Levine, L. J. (1998). Reminiscence as autobiographical memory: A catalyst for reminiscence theory development. Ageing and Society, 18, 185-208. [pdf]
  • Levine, L. J. (1997). Reconstructing memory for emotions. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 126, 165-177. [pdf]
  • Levine, L.J. & Bluck, S. (1997). Experienced and remembered emotional intensity in older adults. Psychology and Aging, 12, 514-523. [pdf]
  • Levine, L.J., & Burgess, S.L. (1997). Beyond general arousal: Effects of specific emotions on memory. Social Cognition, 15, 157-181. [pdf]
  • Levine, L.J. (1996). The anatomy of disappointment: A naturalistic test of appraisal models of sadness, anger, and hope. Cognition and Emotion, 10, 337-359. [pdf]
  • Levine, L.J. (1995). Young children's understanding of the causes of anger and sadness. Child Development, 66, 697-709. [pdf]
  • Stein, N.L., & Levine, L.J. (1990). Making sense out of emotion: The representation and use of goal-structured knowledge. In N.L. Stein, B. Leventhal, & T. Trabasso (Eds.), Psychological and biological approaches to emotion (pp. 45-73). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. [pdf]
  • Stein, N.L., & Levine, L.J. (1989). The causal organization of emotional knowledge: A developmental study. Cognition and Emotion, 3, 343-378.
  • Stein, N.L., & Levine, L.J. (1987). Thinking about feelings: The development and organization of emotional knowledge. In R.E. Snow & M. Farr (Eds.), Aptitude, learning, and instruction: Vol. 3. Cognition, conation and affect (pp. 165-197). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Web Links of Research Sites

Last updated: Thursday, March 10, 2016 - 11:10am